Antonio Ramirez

Antonio Ramirez worked in the 1960s on the education staffs of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America and the International Ladies Garment Workers Union. He retired in 1994 after serving twenty-five years as an editor of the New York Teacher, the publication of the New York State United Teachers, American Federation of Teachers, AFL-CIO. He is a member of the boards of directors of the New York State Labor History Association and the Association for Union Democracy.

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Bessie Abramowitz Hillman

Bas Sheva Abramowitz (“Bessie” was created by an Ellis Island immigration officer) was born on May 15, 1889, in Linoveh, a village near Grodno in Russia. She was one of ten children born to Emanuel Abramowitz, a commission agent, and Sarah Rabinowitz. In 1905, Bessie, who spoke only Yiddish and some Russian, joined an older cousin in immigrating to America. Most 1905 immigrants fled czarist oppression and anti-Jewish violence, but Bessie reported that her aim in leaving home was to escape the services of the local marriage broker.

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Jewish Women's Archive. "Antonio Ramirez." (Viewed on February 19, 2020) <>.


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